Exoticism is always (?) based on unequal power relationships – The consuming culture has more power than the represented culture – Europeans could represent foreign cultures any way they chose to – The represented people had nothing to say about whether and how they were represented

Exoticism takes some material from the represented culture (e.g. tunes, instruments, stories, costumes), but these are merely “tokens,” which are altered and packaged to suit the consuming public – They become traditions of stereotypes in the consuming country